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Both the number and size of the nanodomains of these two kinds of martensites increase under Alloy PTK applied load, leading to the observed superelasticity and nonlinear elastic behavior of the system. But their growth is confined by chemical and structural non-uniformities in the austenite and by each other as neighboring domains.

As no Alloy PTK domains of any other variants are found in the whole HE-XRDS patterns, all domains belong to the same variant of martensite that is favored by the tensile load. Figure 4: Schematics to show the dual martensite phase-transformation mechanism during deformation for gum-type TiNb-4Zr-8Sn Full size image The stress-induced martensites in our sample are different from the polytwinned, long-range ordered strain state consisting of multiple self-accommodating variants as those observed during NMT.

The long-range ordered strain state is suppressed by the random spatial distribution of various chemically and structurally different nanodomains in the alloy see, e. Also note that the chemical and structural degree of B2 ordering non-uniformities present in the parent austenite phase, whose homogenization requires atomic diffusion, are preserved in the stress-induced martensitic phases. The fine-scale chemical and structural non-uniformities i. Both experimental and theoretical studies have shown that point defects could broaden martensitic transition temperature and reduce martensitic domain size 2021 To understand the effect of these fine-scale chemical and structural non-uniformities in the austenite on MTs, we carry out computer simulations using the phase field method 212324 based on Landau theory.

Note that our present simulations do not concern the kinetic processes that lead to the initial non-uniformities in the austenite. Instead we focus on the subsequent MTs under the Alloy PTK of such non-uniformities in the parent phase.


To do so we introduce two effects associated with these non-uniformities in our model, i. The LTTE allows us to have different stabilities i. Figure 5 shows the Alloy PTK curve and related properties of the Ti Alloy PTK simulated by the phase field method. According to the experimental observations discussed above Fig.

  • PTK textolite of 20 mm, ~ 1000х1150 mm, ~ 35 kg of GOST 5-78

In Alloy PTK model, these martensitic embryos are induced by the random local fields associated with the substitutional elements. Figure 5: Phase field simulations on the deformation behaviour for gum-type TiNb-4Zr-8Sn There the green color describes the parent phase, red and blue colors describe the martensitic variants.

New intrinsic mechanism on gum-like superelasticity of multifunctional alloys Scientific Reports

Full size image Figure 5a shows the non-linear S-S curve under loading and unloading, with the inset showing the Alloy PTK portion of S-S curve in the elastic region. The volume fraction increases when the applied stress increases, resulting from the effect of stress-induced MT Alloy PTK.


The stress-induced MT in both the BCC and B2 austenite occurs at a similar stress level with different critical stress as Alloy PTK in Fig. When a load is applied, Alloy PTK system transforms gradually from a state consisting of nanodomains of all variants red and blue in both BCC and B2 regions at zero load into nanodomains dominated by one variant i. The volume fraction curves Fig.


The gradual growth of existing domains, the newly-generated domains favored by the stress field, and the switch of unfavorable domains towards the favored ones upon the continued increase of the load are the intrinsic physical origins of both the non-linear stress-strain behavior in the elastic region Alloy PTK the pseudo-elastic behavior in the inelastic region of the stress-strain curve. Thus our computer simulations starting with nanodomains of BCC and B2 austinitic regions have shown the existence of two different stress-induced martensitic transformations and reproduced Alloy PTK deformation behavior of the Ti alloy without considering any dislocation-related plastic deformations.

New intrinsic mechanism on gum-like superelasticity of multifunctional alloys

In sumary, the in-situ synchrotron-based Alloy PTK X-ray scattering experiments, in combination with TEM observations reveal for the first time the existence of nanoscale chemical and structural non-uniformities and stress-induced dual martensitic transformations in Ti GMs. The phase field simulations using the phase field method that takes into account of the nanoscale non-uniformities in austenite as well as possible effect from atomic size misfitting of the substitutional elements reproduce the deformation behavior of the alloy observed in the experiments. Thus the current study provides new insight into the intrinsic deformation mechanism for the anomalous mechanical behaviors of the gum-type metallic materials.

The understanding of the physical origins of the stress-state dependence of elastic modulus during elastic deformation indeed benfits greatly designing new advanced functional and structural materials with wide applications in the whole materials spectrum. The dog-bone-shaped tensile and cube-shaped Alloy PTK are cut from the grown single crystal for in-situ loading tension and compression tests, respectively. ready for installation.

The bell housings Alloy PTK made from an aluminium cast alloy. On the PTK (bell housing with built-in oil/air cooler) the oil is cooled efficiently. Alloy PTK. Vehla Jatt From Sarna Ptk Videos. PARADO ORIGINAL ALLOY WHEELS @ RANVIR BULLET PLANET KHANPUR CHOWNK OLD DUSHERA GROUND.

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