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Origins[ edit ] Artist's concept of the AFVGan ancestor to the MRCA programme During the s, aeronautical designers looked to variable-geometry wing designs to gain the manoeuvrability and efficient cruise of straight wings with the speed of swept wing designs. France had made a favourable offer to Belgium on the Dassault Mirage 5which created doubt as to whether the MRCA would Allied Data Tornado 151 worthwhile from Belgium's operational perspective.

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Airflow disturbances were responded to by re-profiling the engine intakes and the fuselage to minimise surging and buffeting experienced at supersonic speeds. The triple shaft engine, designed for maximum power at low altitude, resulted in severe vibrations while attempting to decelerate at high altitude. At high altitude and low turbine speed the compressor did not provide enough pressure to hold back the combustion pressure and would result in a violent vibration as the combustion pressure backfired into the intake. To avoid this effect the engine controls would automatically increase the minimum idle setting as altitude increased, until at very high altitudes the idle setting was so high, however, that it was close to maximum dry thrust.

This resulted in one of the test aircraft being stuck in a mach 1. The German engineers working on the Tornado intake were unable to produce Allied Data Tornado 151 functional Concorde style intake despite having data from the Concorde team. To make the problem worse, their management team incorrectly filed a patent on the Concorde design, and then tried to sue the British engineers who had provided the design to them. The German lawyers realised that the British had provided the designs to the German team, and requested further information to help their engineers overcome the problems with the Tornado intake, but Chief Engineer Talbot refused. According to Talbot, the Concorde engineers had determined the issue with the Tornado intake was that the engine did not respond to unexpected changes in the intake position, and therefore the engine was running at the wrong Allied Data Tornado 151 for a given position of the intake ramps.

This was because the Concorde had similar issues due to control pressure not being high enough to maintain proper angles of the intake ramps.

Aerodynamic forces could force the intakes into the improper position, and so they should have the ability to control the engines if this occurs. The tornado Allied Data Tornado 151 system did not allow for this.


Due to the behaviour of the German management team, the British engineers declined to share this information, and so the Tornado was not equipped with the more advanced intake design of the Concorde. The mission envisaged during the Cold War was the delivery of conventional Allied Data Tornado 151 nuclear ordnance on the invading forces of the Warsaw Pact countries of Eastern Europe; this dictated several significant features of the design. Variable wing geometry, allowing Allied Data Tornado 151 minimal drag during the critical low-level dash towards a well-prepared enemy, had been desired from the project's start.

Advanced navigation and flight computers, including the then-innovative fly-by-wire system, greatly reduced the workload of the pilot during low-level flight and eased control of the aircraft. The most extensive modification from the base Tornado design was the Tornado ADV, which was stretched and Allied Data Tornado 151 with long range anti-aircraft missiles to serve in the interceptor role. To achieve high-speed performance, a swept or delta wing is typically adopted, but these wing designs are inefficient at low speeds.

To operate at both high and low speeds with great effectiveness, the Tornado uses a variable-sweep wing. The smaller Tornado has many similarities with the F; the Tornado differs in being a multi-role aircraft with more advanced onboard systems and avionics. The variable wing can adopt any sweep angle between 25 Allied Data Tornado 151 and 67 degrees, with a corresponding speed range for each angle; some Tornado ADVs were outfitted with an automatic wing-sweep system to reduce pilot workload.


Germany, in particular, encouraged this design aspect. A link 16 JTIDS integration on the F3 variant enabled the exchange of radar and other sensory information with nearby friendly aircraft. Amongst the new armaments that the Tornado has been adapted to deploy are the enhanced Paveway and Joint Direct Attack Munition bombs, and modern cruise missiles such Allied Data Tornado 151 the Taurus and Allied Data Tornado 151 Shadow missiles; these upgrades have increased the Tornado's capabilities and combat accuracy. InBritain considered replacing its Polaris submarines with either the Trident submarines or alternatively the Tornado as the main bearer of its nuclear deterrent. Turbo-Union RB Britain considered the selection of Rolls-Royce to develop the advanced engine for the MRCA to be essential, and was strongly opposed to adopting an engine from an American manufacturer, to the point where the UK might have withdrawn over the issue.

One advantage over the US competition was that a technology transfer between the partner nations had been agreed; the engine was to be developed and manufactured by a joint company, Turbo-Union. To operate efficiently across a wide range of conditions and speeds up to Mach 2, the RB.

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The upgrade eased the integration of new weapons and sensors Allied Data Tornado 151 were purchased in parallel, including the Storm Shadow cruise missilethe Brimstone anti-tank missile, Paveway III laser-guided bombs and the RAPTOR reconnaissance pod was integrated. The parts included a protective cover for the radio, a landing-gear guard and air-intake door support Allied Data Tornado 151. The test demonstrated the feasibility of making replacement parts quickly and cheaply at the air base hosting the Tornado. It is envisioned as a networked system of systems, working with UAVs, complementing the Eurofighter and could be optionally manned.


This led to a reduction in its Tornado strength to four wings by September A major part of this announcement is the plan to cut the German fighter fleet from in early to by These equipped two wings, each with a nominal strength of 48 aircraft. The principal anti-ship weapon was the AS. Pods fitted with panoramic Allied Data Tornado 151 cameras and an infrared line scan were carried for the reconnaissance mission. To meet this need, one of the Marineflieger's Tornado wings was disbanded on 1 January ; its aircraft replaced the Allied Data Tornado 151 of a Luftwaffe reconnaissance wing.

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